·The top ten companies in the passenger car market in February 2015

According to the data, in February this year, the top ten enterprises in the passenger car market (referring to the narrow passenger car market, excluding micro-customers) were Shanghai Volkswagen, Shanghai GM, FAW-Volkswagen, Changan Automobile, SAIC-GM-Wuling, and Beijing Hyundai. Changan Ford, Great Wall Motor, Dongfeng Yueda Kia and Shenlong Automobile.

Shanghai Volkswagen opened Shanghai GM and FAW Volkswagen

In the first camp, Shanghai Volkswagen once again won the passenger car market sales champion, and significantly ahead of Shanghai GM and FAW Volkswagen. In February of this year, Shanghai Volkswagen's sales increased slightly by 0.1% to 161,100 units, which was 4,500,000 higher than Shanghai GM and FAW Volkswagen, ranking first. Among the models of Shanghai Volkswagen, Yi still sold 36,100 units in February, which is still the biggest contributor to its sales; followed by Santana, although its sales volume dropped sharply (down 19.2%), it still has a performance of 26,500 units. In addition, Tiguan, Passat, POLO and Lingdu and Mingrui also sold 10,000 vehicles, which provided favorable support for Shanghai Volkswagen to win the championship.

FAW-Volkswagen, which won the championship last year, lost 5.4% in sales to 111.6 million units in February this year, ranking third. Among its models, although there are many sales of more than 10,000 models - Sagitar, Jetta, Bora, Magotan, Golf, Audi A6, but failed to break through 20,000. Among them, in addition to the Audi A6, sales of these models fell across the board.

Shanghai GM's February sales increased slightly by 1.5% year-on-year to 113,000 units, slightly ahead of FAW-Volkswagen, ranking second. Although there are many products, but the sales volume can be broken, there are only three models - Cruze, Excelle, and New Sail, which sold 18,500, 18,200 and 17,200 respectively.

Changan Automobile Sales Maintains Fourth

After entering the top four for the first time in January, Changan Automobile’s sales in February were only lower than the above three companies, the highest in the second camp. It sold 83,300 units in February this year, up 77.6% year-on-year, and the fastest growth among the top ten companies. In addition to Yuexiang V3, sales of Changan Automobile's models have all increased. Among them, the sales of the four models of Onofrio, Yidong, CS35 and CS75 are more than 10,000 vehicles. It is worth mentioning that the CS75, which has been on the market for less than one year, sold 10,111 vehicles in February this year.

In addition to Changan Automobile, Great Wall Motor is another local company that entered the top ten. In February this year, sales increased by 9.1% year-on-year to 44,800 units, ranking eighth. The Haval H6 maintained steady growth, with sales increasing by 10.9% to 20,200 units; the Haf H2, a small SUV launched in recent years, achieved sales of 10,561 units.

Ranked fifth in SAIC-GM-Wuling, sales in February this year increased by 15.0% year-on-year to 81,300 units. Although Wuling Hongguang's sales fell by more than 20%, but the performance of 51,500 units still ranked first in the MPV market; Baojun 730 sales also had a performance of 24,500 units.

Beijing Hyundai, which has been in the top five for a long time, sold 74,000 vehicles in February this year, which was comparable to the sales volume in the same period last year. The ranking fell to the sixth place. This is the embodiment of the auto market's “not going forward”. Sales of Changan Ford, Dongfeng Yueda Kia and Shenlong have increased. Among them, sales of Shenlong Automobile increased by 9.0% to 43,700 units, ranking among the top ten.

In January-February 2015, the top ten enterprises in the passenger car market were Shanghai Volkswagen, FAW-Volkswagen, Shanghai GM, Changan Automobile, SAIC-GM-Wuling, Beijing Hyundai, Changan Ford, Great Wall Motor, Shenlong Automobile and Dongfeng Nissan.


You must be able to reduce the high-pressure gas in a cylinder to a working pressure before you can use it. This pressure reduction is done by a Regulator or reducing valve. The one basic job of all regulators is to take the high-pressure gas from the cylinder and reduce it to a level that can be safely used. Not only do they control the pressure but they also control the flow (volume of gas per hour).

Regulators come in all sizes and types. Some are designed for high-pressure oxygen cylinders (2,200 psig), while others are designed for low-pressure gases, such as natural gas (5 psig). Some gases like nitrous oxide or carbon dioxide freeze when their pressure is reduced so they require electrically heated regulators.

Most regulators have two gauges: one indicates the cylinder pressure when the valve is opened and the other indicates the pressure of the gas coming out of the regulator. You must open the regulator before you get a reading on the second gauge. This is the delivery pres-sure of the gas, and you must set the pressure that you need for your particular job.

The pressures that you read on regulator gauges is called gauge pressure. If you are using pounds per square inch, it should be written as psig (this acronym means pounds per square inch gauge). When the gauge on a cylinder reads zero, this does not mean that the cylinder is empty. In actuality, the cylinder is still full of gas, but the pressure is equal to the surrounding atmospheric pressure. Remember: no gas cylinder is empty unless it has been pumped out by a vacuum pump.

There are two types of regulators that control the flow of gas from a cylinder. These are either single-stage or double-stage regulators.

Single-Stage Regulators

Regulators are used on both high- and low-pressure systems. Figure 4-8 shows two SINGLE-STAGE regu-lators: one for acetylene and one for oxygen. The regulator mechanism consists of a nozzle through which the gases pass, a valve seat to close off the nozzle, a diaphragm, and balancing springs. These mechanisms are all enclosed in a suitable housing. Fuel-gas regulators and oxygen regulators are basically the same design. The difference being those designed for fuel gases are not made to withstand the high pressures that oxygen regulators are subjected to.

Figure 4-8.-Single-stage regulators.

In the oxygen regulator, the oxygen enters through the high-pressure inlet connection and passes through a glass wool falter that removes dust and dirt. Turning the adjusting screw IN (clockwise) allows the oxygen to pass from the high-pressure chamber to the low-pressure chamber of the regulator, through the regulator outlet, and through the hose to the torch. Turning the adjusting screw further clockwise increases the working pressure; turning it counterclockwise decreases the working pressure.

The high-Pressure Gauge on an oxygen regulator is graduated from 0 to 3,000 psig and from 0 to 220 in cubic feet. This allows readings of the gauge to deter-mine cylinder pressure and cubic content. Gauges are calibrated to read correctly at 70°F. The working pres-sure gauge may be graduated in [psig" from 0 to 150, 0 to 200, or from 0 to 400, depending upon the type of regulator used. For example, on regulators designed for heavy cutting, the working pressure gauge is graduated from 0 to 400.

The major disadvantage of single-stage regulators is that the working gas pressure you set will decrease as the cylinder pressure decreases; therefore, you must constantly monitor and reset the regulator if you require a fixed pressure and flow rate. Keeping the gas pressure and flow rate constant is too much to expect from a regulator that has to reduce the pressure of a full cylinder from 2,200 psig to 5 psig. This is where double-stage regulators solve the problem.

Double-Stage Regulators

The double-stage regulator is similar in principle to the one-stage regulator. The main difference being that the total pressure drop takes place in two stages instead of one. In the high-pressure stage, the cylinder pressure is reduced to an intermediate pressure that was predetermined by the manufacturer. In the low-pressure stage, the pressure is again reduced from the intermediate pressure to the working pressure you have chosen. A typical double-stage regulator is shown in figure 4-9.

Figure 4-9.-Double-stage regulator.

Problems and Safety

Regulators are precise and complicated pieces of equipment. Carelessness can do more to ruin a regulator than any other gas-using equipment. One can easily damage a regulator by simply forgetting to wipe clean the cylinder, regulator, or hose connections. When you open a high-pressure cylinder, the gas can rush into the regulator at the speed of sound. If there is any dirt present in the connections, it will be blasted into the precision-fitted valve seats, causing them to leak This results in a condition that is known as creep. Creep occurs when you shut of the regulator but not the cylinder and gas pressure is still being delivered to the low-pressure side.

Regulators are built with a minimum of two relief devices that protect you and the equipment in the case of regulator creep or high-pressure gas being released into the regulator all at once. All regulator gauges have blowout backs that release the pressure from the back of the gauge before the gauge glass explodes. Nowadays, most manufacturers use shatterproof plastic instead of glass.

The regulator body is also protected by safety devices. Blowout disks or spring-loaded relief valves are the two most common types of devices used. When a blowout disk ruptures, it sounds like a cannon. Spring-loaded relief valves usually make howling or shrieking like noises. In either case, your first action, after you recover from your initial fright, should be to turn off the cylinder valve. Remove the regulator and tag it for repair or disposal.

When opening a gas cylinder, you should just [crack" the valve a little. This should be done before attaching the regulator and every time thereafter. By opening the cylinder before connecting the regulator, you blow out any dirt or other foreign material that might be in the cylinder nozzle. Also, there is the possibility of a regulator exploding if the cylinder valve is opened rapidly.


Oil or other petroleum products must never be used around oxygen regulators because these products will either cause a regulator explosion or fire


Voltage Regulator,High Pressure Regulator,Gas Regulator

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