Discussion on Energy Saving Design of Compressed Air Station in Industrial Factory

With the rapid development of the national economy, high-rise and super-tall buildings, roads and bridges, geological disaster management, water conservancy and hydropower projects have also shown a prosperous scene, and most of these projects involve foundation pit engineering. The term “pit engineering” refers to the design and construction of precipitation, foundation pit support and earthwork, earthwork excavation and backfilling, etc., in order to ensure the surrounding environment of the construction site is not damaged, the safety of the main underground structure and the smooth construction of the foundation pit. The general term for the project is a comprehensive and practical system engineering. Usually involved in survey, design, construction, monitoring and other operations. In order to keep up with the development of construction projects, as the foundation and preliminary work of the construction project, the foundation pit project must also be “developed and improved” with “time advancement”.

2 pile wall retaining structure construction pile wall retaining structure mainly includes four types, namely row cast-in-place pile retaining structure, sheet pile retaining structure, cement retaining wall supporting structure, slot wall type underground continuous wall structure. Different construction types, construction methods and construction techniques are also different. Due to space limitations, this section only details the construction techniques and methods of the first two structural types.

2.1 Construction of the row-type cast-in-situ pile retaining structure When constructing the pile row for the retaining structure, the following requirements shall be met: (1) The thickness of the sediment at the bottom of the pile of the punched (drilled) hole shall not exceed 200 mm, especially When used as a load-bearing structure; (2) The deviation of the pile position perpendicular to the axis direction and the axis along the support structure shall be less than 50 mm, and the deviation of the verticality of the pile shall not exceed 0.5%; (3) Before the construction of the ring beam The floating slurry at the top of the supporting pile shall be cleaned, and the length of the bare steel at the top of the pile shall be within the required range; (4) When burying, hoisting and tying the steel cage with uneven reinforcement, ensure that the steel cage is placed The direction is consistent with the design direction, and the protective layer of the steel bar is to meet the requirements. (5) For row piles, the construction method of jumping should be adopted, and the hole-forming construction of the piles should be carried out 24 hours after the concrete of adjacent piles is poured.

2.2 Sheet pile retaining structure construction The pile retaining structure includes reinforced concrete sheet pile structure and steel sheet pile structure. Among them, reinforced concrete slab piles are usually composed of prefabricated reinforced concrete slab piles. If repeated use is considered, prefabricated prestressed concrete slab piles are generally used. The cross-sectional shape of the pile body can be determined by the scale of the I-shaped and T-shaped air compressor stations to determine the heating area. It can only be operated in winter, and it needs to be switched to another heat recovery system in other seasons, resulting in complicated system and high initial investment and maintenance costs. A detailed technical and economic comparison is required during the design phase of the system.

3 Other energy-saving measures In addition to the energy-saving directions of the above two main air compressor stations, when designing the air compressor station, we can also consider the following aspects to reduce the energy consumption of the air compressor station as much as possible.

(1) The air compressor station should have good ventilation measures. When the indoor temperature of the air compressor station is too high, it will easily cause the operating conditions of the unit to deteriorate, resulting in frequent shutdown of the air compressor, resulting in a decrease in the power consumption life of the equipment. In order to avoid this situation, the indoor ventilation design of the air compressor station is required. The hot air of the air compressor is applied to the outside of the air duct, and according to the cooling air volume of the equipment, whether the natural ventilation area of ​​the station is sufficient, and whether mechanical ventilation is required.

(2) An externally heated or compressed heat-regeneration type adsorption dryer is used. Common compressed air dryers are classified into two types, frozen and adsorbed, according to the working principle. According to the relevant test data, the ratio of the dryer to the energy consumption of the compressor is about 35% for the refrigeration type, about 810% for the heating regeneration type, and 18% for the non-heat and micro heat regeneration type. If you can use a refrigerated dryer, do not use an adsorption dryer; when using an adsorption dryer, it should be rectangular or rectangular, generally rectangular. The steel sheet pile support structure usually adopts a Z-shaped or U-shaped cross-sectional shape. When the foundation pit is deep and the load is large, H steel, steel pipe and other combined section steels can also be used. When the foundation pit is shallow, the forward and reverse buckle channel steel can also be used.

Steel sheet piles are usually sunk into the soil either alone or in combination with vibration, static pressure or hammering. Before sinking, the steel sheet piles on the site should be numbered and checked one by one. The dimensional deviation of the steel sheet piles should be within the error range. For example, the length deflection should be less than 1%, the section width deviation should be between -5mm and 10mm, the end face flatness of the pile should be less than 3mm, and the section height deviation range is -3mm to 3mm. When the steel plate length is not enough, it can be The principle of equal strength uses the same type of sheet piles, which are usually first butt welded, and then welded to the head reinforcement.

Steel sheet piles should not be driven separately and should be driven in sections. For semi-enclosed or closed retaining structures, the number of blocks required should be calculated in advance, and the verticality of the first pile sinking into the steel sheet pile should be ensured, and it should be 2m-3m longer than the steel pile pile that sinks later. It is permissible to pre-set the guide along the position of the retaining structure on the ground before piling. Usually, the steel sheet pile is used as a temporary support structure for the foundation pit, and it can be removed once the underground main project is finished.

However, in the process of removing the steel sheet pile, the settlement and lateral movement of the surrounding soil are easily caused, and the safety of the surrounding environment cannot be guaranteed. In order to avoid this phenomenon, the following two measures are usually taken: First, insert the plastic bag or the bag grouting pipe into the pile hole immediately after the steel sheet pile is pulled up, until the bottom of the narrow gap, then grout Secondly, the grouting pipe is inserted in the outer side of the steel sheet pile in advance along the direction of the pile pulling. Once the sheet pile is pulled up, the grouting is immediately performed through the adjacent grouting pipe.

3 Support structure Construction support structure construction, pay attention to the order of installation and removal, must meet the design requirements of the support structure, and closely cooperate with the main project and earthwork excavation construction sequence. All supports should be installed after the foundation is slotted. When the top of the support structure needs to run the excavation machine, the installation height of the support top surface must be paid attention to. Generally, it should be lower than 250mm above the pit. The gap between the foundation pit and the steel plate support structure is backfilled with coarse sand, and the road plate is placed at the passage of the earth vehicle and the excavator. In the stratified excavation of the foundation pit, the thermal regenerative dryer should be installed first.

(3) Using the hot air of the air compressor to heat the station. When designing an air compressor station in a cold or cold area in the north, an adjustable air outlet is arranged on the air exhaust duct of the air compressor, and when the station room needs heating, the air outlet is opened to introduce a part of the hot air into the room.

(4) Design a reasonable compressed air line. According to the maximum consumption of the user's hour, choose the appropriate pipe diameter; the pipeline system should be short and straight; the workshop pipe should be arranged as a loop that communicates end to end. There are many design details such as this, no longer exemplified, the purpose is to minimize the pressure loss of the pipeline system, so as to achieve energy saving.

4 Conclusion Compressed air stations are the main energy consumers of enterprises. How to introduce the concept of energy saving into the design is a problem that designers need to carefully consider. This paper introduces the internal energy-saving design schemes of several air compressor stations in a comprehensive way. It focuses on the application of air compressor waste heat recovery in public systems, broadens the ideas for energy-saving design of air compressor stations, and hopes to help relevant designers. .

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