Developed countries' iron and steel environmental development trend

1. environmental protection in developed countries to promote the steel industry restructuring process. Technical essence is a high temperature steel metallurgical chemical reactions, and thus the conventional metallurgical carbon-based energy - energy chemical reaction with oxygen, electric arc furnace steelmaking and this is different - the energy used to power main. The electric energy has the superior characteristics of being clean, efficient and convenient. It is the preferred energy source for industrial development. The large-scale development and utilization of electric energy is an important symbol of the modernization of human society. The scrap steel resources used in electric furnaces are a kind of non-natural, renewable resources, which are produced along with the mass production of steel products (produced during production and after use of products), due to the total iron and metal High iron content, excellent recycling and reuse value, and an important economic significance for improving the return of scrap steel are the goals that the steel industry has always pursued. The inability to recycle scrap steel is not only a huge waste of iron resources, but also causes serious pollution to the environment. In summary, electric furnace steelmaking is a process of recycling and recycling iron resources, and is also an environmentally friendly technology for dealing with pollution. The proportion of world electric furnace steel production in total crude steel production is increasing year by year, in 1970, 1980, 1990 and 2000, respectively: 14.28%, 21.97%, 27.74%, 36.11%. World steel experts predict that by 2010 this proportion will reach 46%. The proportion of China's electric furnace steel is decreasing year by year. This is because the output from blast furnace ironmaking to converter steelmaking has grown too fast, which has led to a decline in the proportion of electric furnace steel. In 2003, the proportion of electric furnace steel was only 17.6%. In 2005, the proportion of electric furnace steel fell to 11.8%, but the output of electric furnace steel increased year by year. With the rapid development of China's economy, the demand for special steel is increasing. For steel raw materials that are still increasing in demand, the ore smelting method represented by blast furnace ironmaking technology is indispensable. From the point of view of potential energy for regeneration, recycling and efficient use, the scrap steel smelting method represented by the electric furnace is effective. Although each company can choose to develop different steel production processes according to its actual situation, environmental protection and environmental technology innovation are all integrated into it. Environmental friendliness has always been an indispensable topic for the sustainable development of the steel industry.

2. Steel companies play a role in handling municipal solid waste. Municipal solid waste currently mainly uses landfill methods, incineration methods and biodegradation treatment methods. The landfill method and the biodegradation treatment method occupy a large amount of land, and the CH4 produced by the decomposition of organic matter is a greenhouse gas having a stronger effect than CO2, thereby causing new pollution. Ordinary combustion methods can only deal with organic matter, and metals and inorganic substances in solid waste cannot be separated and recovered. The use of high-temperature reactions in metallurgical reactors can quickly process municipal solid waste, such as blast furnace injection of waste plastics, coking process, high-temperature carbonization of waste plastics. At high temperatures, the organic matter burns and releases heat to become a fuel for power generation, and the toxic substances are decomposed into elemental forms, and the metals and inorganic substances are melted and separated and recycled. Japan has put forward the "contribution of the steel industry as a sustainable civilized society". Japan's NKK has been actively working on waste recycling because recycled plastics can be excellent iron ore in the blast furnace. reducing agent. Another important reason is that the use of recycled waste plastics in blast furnace ironmaking can significantly reduce CO2 emissions (up to 30%). The good result can be achieved because the basic component of the waste plastics that are fed into the furnace is hydrocarbons, and the components of coke or coal are mainly carbon. Another important reason is that waste recycling is indeed profitable. The United States pointed out in its "Technology Development Guide for the Steel Industry" that the steel industry is one of the world's highest-yield, most efficient and technologically advanced industries. For example: (1) Steel is still an advanced material, most of the steel currently used cannot be produced 10 years ago; (2) Steel is the most easily recycled material, compared with plastic, glass and aluminum , copper and other materials. The sum of the recycling is several times more. In short, the recycling and sustainable development of the steel industry has become an important topic in the metallurgical industry in the 21st century.

3. An important way for the current steel industry to achieve healthy development is to develop and promote various advanced environmental technologies applicable to steel production. The steel industry is a manufacturing industry with large production scale and concentrated capital, and it is also an industry that consumes a lot of energy. The amount of solid waste (tailings, slag, dust, etc.) and gas products emitted by the steel industry is also very large, although one A small part of tailings sand and a part of slag and dust have been recycled, and the recycling technology for their development still needs to continue. According to the principle of circular economy, the recycling and recycling of various energy and materials in the future steel industry, as well as the integration with upstream and downstream industries, is one of the topics of the steel industry to implement a circular economy strategy. In the future, the new production methods of full utilization of raw materials and energy in the steel industry, high efficiency, low emissions and even zero emissions will replace the large-scale consumption of natural resources such as ore and coal, and the traditional production methods of slag, waste heat and CO2 emissions. An environmentally-friendly steel industry that uses low resource use and low energy consumption can only rely on technological advancement and innovation. Steel enterprises in developed countries actively promote equipment renewal and technological transformation with energy conservation and emission reduction as the main objectives, and vigorously guide enterprises to adopt new equipment, new processes and new technologies that are conducive to energy conservation and environmental protection, so as to promote comprehensive utilization and clean production of resources.

4. Environmental pressure has forced the steel industry in developed countries to make moderate transfers. The demanding requirements of environmental protection in developed countries have greatly increased the cost of environmental protection in steel production. If the steel industry is not sufficiently invested in environmental protection (according to the estimated value of 15% of the total investment by the American Iron and Steel Association) or poor management of environmental protection measures, Iron and steel enterprises will become a very serious source of pollution, and such enterprises are not allowed to exist in developed countries. It should be emphasized that the mining industry in the United States, Europe and Japan is mainly non-ferrous metals and rare metals, and iron concentrates and pellets for blast furnaces are mainly imported, thus leaving the heavily polluting processes to developing countries. Therefore, while seeing the advanced side of the environmental protection of the steel industry in developed countries, we must also see the negative effects of the transfer of steel industry in developed countries on developing countries.

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